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    The Affective World of Troubadour’s Songs


    The paper below is memorable. This is because it is the first academic writing in my previous university life.   Viewing the paper from today, although the English is no good, and the expressions is overwording, I still like it very much, not only of ideas but also the first success of developing my thinking pattern.

    The Affective World of Troubadour’s Song: 

    A symbol of the relief from religious restraint


    From time to time, the artistic value of poem not lies in the elegance and sensuous words, but rather, the idea or symbol concealed behind these words. In a similar way, what the troubadours, a group of poet-musicians from the aristocratic class of France active from the 11th to 12th century, leaves to the world is a treasure of heartfelt, profound and consummate affectionate musical works. Although this affection is somewhat idealistic and unattainable, its influence is still far reaching till to many centuries, constituting part of what is  now called European humanistic culture. It was in the 11th century that the troubadours first began to appear. The combination of the ‘Heroic Chivalry’ and the ideal ‘Courtly Love’ that they contributed found expression in the daily words and deeds of the medieval people. The first troubadour of record was Duke William of Aquitaine. His poetry is said to contain all elements of ‘Courtly Love’, a kind of lovely affection commonly reflected in many troubadours’ poems. The nature of ‘Courtly Love’ is rather ambivalent, sometimes positive and joyful, but sometimes  melancholic and miserable. Although many of the extant troubadour poems exalt the pure and passionate affection of the ‘Courtly Love’ between a gentleman and a courtly lady in the surface, such passions, however, always give evidence of presenting somewhat the religious symbolism as a personal emotional reaction to the social/liturgical orders and codes beneath.[1] In the following discussion, I shall examine the affective world of troubadours through their songs and lyrics, especially seeking the underlying tones of the words, so as to reveal how the ‘Courtly love’, was shaped and shaped the medieval musical culture.


    It is almost impossible for us to understand the symbolism of the troubadours’ poetry without referring to the culture and religious situation in the Middle Ages. Medieval people lived under a restrained world of codes and rules. Treaties, guidance, manners, no matter on chivalry, on hunting, on table, on liturgy, subliminally directed their daily life[2]. In addition, the Catholic Church acted as the ministry of God’s representative on earth. It was the sole means of maintaining the divine, godly, order of the terrestrial world regardless of her ‘greedy zeal’ in accumulating their prestige and wealth incessantly. The Church doctrine and liturgy not only gave coherence but also restraints to everyday life.


    The promise of salvation, the soul’s redemption from sin and its eternal life in a world to come, for instance, was assured by the Church through the ways of burdensome sacraments[3]. No matter is the ‘Ladder of Salvation’ of the wall painting of Chaldon Church, or the ‘Ladder of Perfection’ by Whicker, gives the impression of how a medieval individual should put in effort for the whole life but still wore an entire face of fear and uncertainty in the last judgment before the awe-inspiring God[4]. The rooted religious affection of the poets, therefore, like the common medieval people, unavoidably was a contradictive amalgamation of anxiety and devotion, as well as desperation and piousness. It is because of these underlying negative emotions that rooted unconsciously in the mind of the troubadours, the ‘Courtly Love’ that flourished in their poems becomes a kind of substituted and transformed affection, becoming a relief from the liturgical rigidities. In this sense, the poems of troubadour comprise religious symbolism.


    According to the Webster’s Third New International Dictationary, the word ‘relief’ means that an feeling of removal or lightening or setting free of something burdensome, painful or distressing. One of the ways to remove the stress of the afflicting emotion, in general speaking, is to let the negative affection substituted by another positive one. In the daily experience, for instance, consoling by good friends or enjoying a nice trip can always assist to calm down, or to relieve from the vigorous and agitated emotions after the quarrel between a couple of lovers. It is because the negative affection is overcame, or substituted, by some positive affection. The same thing happens in the poems of the troubadours. It is obvious that the troubadour song presented a kind of love so-called ‘Feudalization’ of love. The lady was called ‘midons’ or ‘senhor’. Only a bad lord refused to protect and aid his vassal with pity. In some poetry of the troubadours, the lady is depicted as so lofty and unapproachable, somewhat like the God in certain ways, that the lover in aspiring to her is like a lesser, humiliate knight seeking a seat by a mighty baron[5]. It can be imagined that a medieval man who was zealous, heartfelt and devout but could not touch even the corner of the “Ladder of Salvation’. Where his affection could be released? It is not surprised to assert that the loyalty or honesty between the lord and the vassal in the feudal society resembled the dedicated love towards God. The more the man dedicated loyally as a serf to his lord, the ‘midons’, the more the man felt relief from the restricted emotion because of the more acceptance from the lord. In Pus Vezem, Guilhem of Poitou, also named William of Anquitane, stated:


      Flowering fields again we see, the meadows rich with greenery, the

      springs all rippling lucidly, the wind, the breeze

      With every man that joy should be, which brings him ease…………


      Obedience he must not spurn,

      Bowing to many. In his turn he must do pleasant deeds to earn

      The love he has to sought.

      Yes, like a serf he now must learn silence in court………


    Interestingly, ‘Feudalisation of Love’ consists of certain elements of what is said to be called ‘Courtly Love’. The poet is about a serf and how he feels if he could gain more freedom from the rigid and aloof world by showing absolute obedience to the lady in regardless of whatever the pain brought. The rising of love is linked with the spring. The lady is the most beautiful in the world and the poet is submissive to her power.[6] With releasing of his obedient love, poet seems to gain the freedom from his restrained affection world, in the other word, from the very hypocritical and superficial religious orders, and those sacraments. Through the use of feudal metaphor in troubadour’s poem, the negative, unrequited affection towards God was substituted by a kind of positive and rewarding feudalized fidelity, though deriving from poets’ imagery, was still a way of passionate relief. In fact, troubadours showed no pretence of worshipping aloofness. They really wanted the consummating embrace. But not all the idealistic love in the poems give a perfect result from their ‘Midons’, or the lady.


    Undeniably, many of the ‘Courtly love’ ideas presented in the poems flourishes with grief, sorrow and disappointment. To love is to suffer, and even it associates with distressing physical symptoms such as an inability to eat or sleep[7]. The tenets of such love requires a knight to prove his love for his lady by performing courageous, and often impossible deeds; he must even be willing to die for her. If this kind of affection is another form of affection to substitute the rigid and unfulfilled Christian love, we can understand why when Pope Urban II proclaimed for the bloody crusade in 1095A.D., albeit irrational, the response was a tremendous success that totally exceeded his expectation. However, what remaining nowadays is only a horrible and bloody historical record of mankind.


    In the troubadour’s song of ‘Distant Lady’, the religious symbolism in the poetry, again, is obvious. The troubadour secularizes this highly self-devoted, vassal-like or even serf-like affection believing that the lesser he asserted his own will, the more he accepted by the lady, that is, he was closer to the top of the ‘Salvation Ladder’[8]. Jaufre Rudel, undoubtedly, depicts us a clear picture of the writer’s devout affection, his inner intense religious love and how it is sublimated and realized into the metaphorical feudal affection towards his ‘Lady’. The ‘Distant Lady’ in the song can be every woman truly loved and loving. The separation is not meant that she is unreal or unattainable but, on the other hand, it is the aim in life to seek or to discover, no matter for the poet or for the others. Rudel wrote:


       When now the days are long in May,

       I love to hear the birds far distant,

       And when the song has died away,

       I dream about a love as distant………..

       Sad and rejoicing I shall part from her,

       When I have seen this love far away:…………


       He speaks the truth who I says I crave

      And go desiring this love far away

    For no other joy pleases me more,

    For my godfather gave me this fate

      Than the rich enjoyment of this love far away[9]…….


    In a more concrete sense, Rudel’s poem shows us that seeking for the Courtly Love from the distant ‘Lady’ is the seeking for the love, or the pity from the angry God. The more he suffered in the course of seeking, the more godly devotion he had sacrificed, and thus, another way of relief of his onerous affection. This might be the aim in life of the poet, to some extent, the aim in life of every medieval man[10]in order to fulfill the unsatisfied religious heart.


    As we have seen that how the metaphoric ‘Feudal Love’ or ‘Courtly Love’ plays an important role in troubadours’ poem and is related with their religious affection, it is interested to point out that the cult of the Virgin Mary in the High Middle Ages is also another factor affecting their underlying emotion of the poems. Ironically, Christianity succeeded ultimately in this period because it represented a return to the pagan way of worshipping the original goddess which devotion to the Roman gods or ancient earthly goddess had precluded though the Church had attempted to stamp out previously. The importance of the adoration of the ‘Mother of Heaven’ was not only meant that the rank of the woman, at least in the middle class, was exalted, but also the rigidities of fear underlying the medieval world-views dominated by the concept and image of God’ s harsh judgment, was gradually broken down. The adoration of the Virgin, therefore, satisfied some of the attitudes that went to the troubadour system with its worship of the ‘Lady’. In a more progressive sense, the ‘Feudal Lady’ in the poem of troubadour is now transformed into Virgin Mary who was defined as a human character that could really temper justice with mercy, even with a warm or a merciful smile. On the other hand, Virgin Mary, the intercessor for the salvation of wicked human soul, tended to be humanized. She was seen as a real, fleshy and attainable human of tenderness and compassion. No matter is the ‘Goddess’ transformed to “Lady’ or vice versa, the restrained religious affection is relieved through this religious symbolization process. In poem of Bernart De Ventadorn, the ‘Lady’ is transformed to become the Virgin Mary, Goddess of love, mercy and pity. The ‘God-liked Lady’ is all beautiful and amiable. She lifts all worshippers including the poet himself up to passionate perfection and completeness and never lets down his hopes. The poem states:


        This love wounds me so gentle

        In the heart with sweet savor

        A hundred times a day I die of grief

        And revive with joy another hundred………

        good will be the reward after suffering


    All the gold silver in the world

    I would have given, if I had it

    Provided my lady might know

    How truly I love her………


    When I see her, it certainly shows

    In my eyes, my face, my color

    For I tremble with fear, like the leaf in the wind

    I haven’t the judgement of a child

     So overwhelmed am I love

      And toward a man who is thus vanquished

    A lady could show great pity[11]……….


    Ventadorn obviously expressed the devotion of a knightly servant to the ‘Lady’, but in one aspect as we have seen, the energies that had alienated into God struggling for salvation had been drawn to the ‘Lady’, a ‘God-liked Lady’ that was more attainable, more perfect and even more human-liked. In a more ridiculous way, the image that appeared before the poet’s eyes when he prayed was his human ‘Lady’, not the angry God swaying to and fro in acceptance of salvation.


    On the other hand, in the song of Guiraut Riquier, Humils, forfaitz, repress e penedens, we explicitly find that the previous concentrations of love on the feudal ‘Midons’ turned to the Goddess Mary requesting for mercy and redemption. The Goddess, ‘Virgin Mary’, was transformed to become a humanized person, a real person in life that was more sensuous and attainable. He definitely wrote:


    Humble, guilty, accused and repentant,

    Saddened, unhappy to return,

    I am, for I have lost my time on account of sin,

    I beg mercy, lady, gracious Virgin,

    Mother of Christ, son of the all-power, that you take no account of my sin towards you,

    If it pleases you, consider the need of my miserable soul………….


    Again, in another song of Riquier, he begged for love and pardon even more honestly. His poem Be.m degra de chantar tener states:


    I should certainly refrain from singing,

    For to song, happiness is fitting,

    And worry constrains me so much

    That it causes pain from all sides,……………..


    My sense, my joy, my displeasure

    My pain and my profit truly

    For I scarcely say anything else good………


    With a great umber of setbacks

    From which it seems that He is against us

    On account of disordered desire

    And overweening power………


    Lady, mother of charity,

    Secure for us, out of pity,

    From your son, redeemer,

    Grace, pardon and love[12].

    Goddess Mary is humanized in the poem. This upsurge of deep pagan elements that revived popularly in the medieval period was returned to the hands of Troubadours’. The expression of the poet’s deep and pious devotion of Mother of Heaven was now turned towards his ‘Humanized Lady’. He was requesting for mercy, for redemption, even for the salvation[13]. The goal of joy after redemption, seen as the motive force of love, is interpreted in terms of poet’s experience as he offered his devotion in the face of setback and disappointment. The previous unattainable desires for the religious affection of satisfaction are fulfilled through his own created ‘Virgin Mary’, a humanized Goddess.

    In conclusion, it is because of this kind of substituted or transformed lovely affection, the ‘Feudal Love’ or ‘Courtly Love’, relieves the troubadour poets from the restrained religious affliction. Perhaps, this may be the reason why the music of the troubadour was so popular in the Middle Ages. The echo was clear. Whether the influences are directly or indirectly, the ideas of pure love lauded by nobility and idolized by the troubadours spread rapidly and extensively like diseases. Under the influence, Tristram and Ysolt, Wace’s Brut and the romance of Troy were written. Andress Capellanus, furthermore, viewed ‘Courtly Love’ which embraced in the affection world of the troubadours’ poetries, as an art of rules and he regulated these rules into his remarkable work of The Art of Courtly Love. Whether this work is satirical, sincere, or debatable is not the most important. Its recognition is nevertheless the golden testament of love to all medieval people. It is also regarded as the incipient of the ‘Romance Love’, which is the most essential love culture of the European world[14].

    The impact of the troubadours’ poems, however, was far beyond this limit. We find that more and more the secular used the religious symbolism that prevailed in troubadours’songs. Chretiende Troyes took over a great deal of the religious vocabulary and turned it to the use of sensual love. Love was adoration. In Gottfried’s Tristan of the early thirteen century there was a Cave of Lovers described as a richly adorned church with its shrine. In the center was ‘the nest of crystalline Love’ with design and proportions explained after the modes of the Gothic World[15]. As the time passed, more and more different kinds of sculptures, literatures, poems reflected in religious symbolism, and even frequently, gave evidence of hostility, or fierce attack on the social inequity and corrupted Church and thus, enforced the reformation of the Church. The poets, the artists tended to express their personal ideas and affection, at the same time, release their religious or social restrained emotions through their artistic activities. Therefore, through the contribution of the troubadours’ music and their ways of discharging the affection by using religious symbolism, it is undeniable to assert that the most precious and valuable lyric poetry in Western humanistic culture begins with the ‘Troubadour’.



    Andrea Hopkins, The Passionate Code of the Troubadours, New York: Harper San Francisco 1994.

    Fiero Gloria K., The Humanistic Tradition: Medieval Europe and the World Beyond, 2nd ed., Singapore: Brown & Benchmark Publishers, 1995

    Goldin Frederick, Lyrics of the Troubadours and Trouveres, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1983.

    Lindsay Jack, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976.

    RosenbergSamuel N., et al., Songs of the Troubadours and Trouveres, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998.

    Stoner Kay, L., The Enduring Popularity of Courtly Love




    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2013-10-12 Published

    [1] Gloria K. Fiero, The Humanistic Tradition: Medieval Europe and the World Beyond, 2nd ed., Singapore: Brown & Benchmark Publishers, 1995, pp75-76.

    [2] Hopkins Andrea, The Passionate Code of the Troubadours, New York: Harper San Francisco 1994, p15.

    [3] Gloria K. Fiero, The Humanistic Tradition: Medieval Europe and the World Beyond, 2nd ed., Singapore: Brown & Benchmark Publishers, 1995, p80.


    [4] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, pp214-217.

    [5] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, pp213.

    [6] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, pp15-17.

    [7] Hopkins Andrea, The Passionate Code of the Troubadours, New York: Harper San Francisco 1994, pp6-7.

    [8] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, p221.

    [9] Frederick Goldin, Lyrics of the Troubadours and Trouveres, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1983, pp104-107.

    [10] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, p69.

    [11] Samuel N. Rosenberg, et al., Songs of the Troubadours and Trouveres, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998, p65.


    [12] Samuel N. Rosenberg, et al., Songs of the Troubadours and Trouveres, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998, pp172-173.

    [13] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, p215.

    [14] Kay L., Stoner, The Enduring Popularity of Courtly Love

    [15] Jack Lindsay, The Troubadours and Their World, London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1976, pp222-224.

    時空交錯中的浪漫美學: KPop "那個女人" 的 MV 製作


    我沒有太多製作歌曲 MV 的經驗。可是,這首 OST 歌曲, My Woman (My Man), 實在是曲詞唱都絕佳。可說是我的摯愛。所以,我嘗試運用 Contemporary Music 的作曲理論,加上 Proust 對時空,即 Time 和 stream of consciousness 的理論,Karol Berger 所提出關於貝多芬音樂中反影 Aesthetic States 的變化作用的概念,歌曲分析學中的 Text Painting,和德國文學家和音樂家在十九世紀文學運動中所提出的浪漫主義特質 — Distancing (遙遠) ,來製作以下MV 短片。在一方面,讓我可以熟悉製片軟件的各種特效和操作,另一方面,我也可以提升歌曲原本想表達的意義,增加其藝術價值。

    值得一提,多數在 Youtube 上的 MV 業餘製作,都是以影片為主幹,往往忽略了音樂自身意義的特質,與樂音與影片中流露的 reference meaning 之間的相互關係。我這個 MV 嘗試,希望是可以拋磚引玉,打開多一種欣賞 MV 的角度。


    首先,請聽眾先欣賞歌曲 “那個女人/那個男人 ……..

         含有對白的MV (較多合唱 Layers)


    由於有影像提供了text,所以,聽眾欣賞時也會看影像和歌詞字幕去了解個 MV 的意義。
    歌詞是我跟據韓文 CD內的中文譯文翻上翻的。

    以下是製作音樂和影片的設計和 underlying idea and concepts。

    但為了妨止阻礙聽眾發揮聯想空間,並作自由解讀,所以我只簡略說出整個 MV 的基本設計和要點。

    1.  Music:
    The Male and Female voices belong to different sound tracks. They do not sing in duet, instead, they sing in solo with different keys, but similar tempo.

    Each individual song is rearranged in the form of collage, superimposing as a pseudo-duet bitonally. The two Chorus Sections become a duet-like passages, creating a climax to the moment.

    This implies a meaning that: Two lovers are distanced, and cannot go on hand by hand.

    Music often articulates the meaning of each stanza, and even provides text-painting to some particular words, or word phrases. For example, the lyric in the Chorus section ” 就在內心中….” is highlighted by the eyesight of the male protagonist over the just found key (symbol of the love). Another lyric phrase ” 那個男人依然在妳身旁” is paralleled with an imagined scene of “The Man” who shows his deep concern with his beloved under the falling rain.

    The nature of the music is story-telling, notified by the opening and closing scenes in which the young boy singer performs live in the garden. He is the character that sings the story of this unattainable love (19th Century German Romantic sentiment) between “The Man” and “The Woman”, who are also the audience in that particular moment.

    2. Video:

    Timeline narration is designed in the linear way. Readers/listeners should be aware of each event moving in different temporal-spatial states, albeit without a logical trajectory.

    Temporal-Spatial spaces crisscross the states of the present (reality), the past, and the future (mental imagination or dream).

    The Present State: Indicated by without using any additional effect in the scene.
    The Past State: Uses of black-and-white screen or faded yellow screen background.
    The Future State (imagined dream): Uses of soften effect, overblown light or cloudy effects to make the images vague and soft. The overall effect creates a distance between images and viewers, romanticizing the imges and the scene to a certain extent.

    Additional FX effects are added to emphasize the particular moment when there is a sudden shift of the temporal-spatial spaces over the stream of consciousness of the protagonists’s minds.

    Montage (small window) is frequently employed in the climatic moments, adding extra-reference meanings to the scenes, for example, a “Kissing” polyphony (counterpoint) is used in the final climatic scene. The small frame of the scene shows the kissing of the lovers a second prior to the large frame of the scene in an imagined dream.

    Montage is also a technique to create a stream of consciousness of “The Man ” and “The Woman”, showing their mental journeys vascillating between the past memory and the future imagined dream.

    3. Story-line:
    A new story is created throughout the MV. Each event has certain linking to the next following event.

    Readers/Listeners can create their own understanding of the story through referencing to the time line events.

    我想我的討論就到此為止。不然的話,太多的解釋反而窒息了聽者的感受空間,解讀故事的多異性也減 弱了。


    David Leung (theorydavid)

    2013-09-12 (published)

    珍惜百歲與千載的緣: 藝術工作者應有的情操?


    葉明媚博士的詩 “消遙 ”  ,就如其人一樣,可堪是風華絕代。我喜歡用的一句形容片語 “幽幽的擁容”,就是想起她的詩和影象而創出來的。她的“消遙 ” 起頭的第一段詩是這樣寫的:



    於是借其意境,寫下了我第一首對 “愛情” 這奇妙東西的感想的古詩。







    只是有緣上過一次葉博士 (她是民族音樂學的PhD,也懂彈奏古琴) 的堂。當時是聆聽她解說中國古代美學,從中國傳統舞蹈和繪畫看何為意境。那是二十多我前的事了。我並沒有緣跟她說過一句說話,她也更不知我的存在。可能跟她的 “緣” 只是修過數載吧了。

    後來她請了當時在香港甚有江湖地位的老前輩作曲家林聲翕先生(林老師是我當時的作曲老師) ,為這首 “消遙” 譜成藝術歌曲用廣東話演出。當時我就想,”死啦!”。坦白說,林老師不是那些善於表達深情的作曲家,特別是寫那些浪漫愛情的曲調。


    只知道後來葉博士移居法國,也沒有聽到她的消息。我偶爾會翻閱她評論古琴的書和她寫的詩,可能跟她的緣就是到這裡為止。可是,每逢我寫作時,用到在前言中提及的一個片語 “幽幽的雍容” 時,我就會想起她的風姿。說起這個片語,來源是來自葉博士原詩中的一組短句: 我雍容地以幽幽瞳靈,千千明媚,還你以一生的消遙……“。


    我這 “幽幽的雍容”,不是形容華麗,也不是描寫貴氣,更跟這些庸俗的形象扯不上關係。恕我詞窮,不能以文字解釋其含意。請讀者自行體會。在我的寫作中,用過這組詞三次。兩次是用來形容一群人去完成他們的特別工作。只有一次是用來形容我的一位學生的氣質,她當然是個女孩子。


    在現代生活中,為了糊口,教學也不免要收學費。但學費還是小事,不收也沒有關係。總希望能有緣教導一些有潛質,特質和氣質的學生。可能在她們的漫長人生旅途中,上課的時日就只是一個驛站而矣。這也不打緊。就好像與葉明媚老師結的緣一樣,雖是短暫而久遠,卻對我的思維有一定的影響。我的 PhD 研究,就包含了中國傳統文人美學。還引用她的著作哩。

    最近的教學生涯,又讓我再一次體會到師生的緣。緣是認識,是”因”,那麼,要結果的話,是要人有多少年的付出,執著,和努力呢? 不收學費就可以嗎?

    “i’m sorry, maybe i cannot go…
    my parents and i discussed for a long time, more than once we quarrelled…but is not for the price,we all think the price is suitable, is actually they did not support me to learn music.

    im really really disappointed,i also did not know until now.



    i m so sorry i wasted of ur so much time

    just hope u can understand

    but just soooo sorry”

    (來信 1引錄)




    生命的智慧往往在乎於這兩個片語: 等待,希望。


    thank u for ur support and understanding
    i cried a lot about it……
    but now relieved a lot
    i will always remember what u said and encourage myself
    although now i cannot change parents’ decision
    but i will use my own way to persevere:)
    always put your words FIRMLY in mind.
    Looking forward to the future with you to learn music
    it will hv the opportunity.
    pls take care of urself
    i will always contact u and send my work to u
    feel free to find me

    Take Care 

    (來信 2引錄)

    無論將來她所走的路會變成怎樣,我將來還會有緣見她與否,這些也不再是重要。認識是緣,也是”因”,但 “果” 就未必是如我們所料的一樣。可能我們為此緣所修的道,就連一年也沒有,何談百載………

    這也使我想那位 “幽幽的雍容”,求學的過程,也算是順利,還有背後的支持,不知道她的路走到最後,會變成怎樣!

    不過,無論如何,師生之緣倒是結了。可是,不知此緣會延多久? 共舟渡河,也總會有下舟的時候……… 是十載,還是百載….…,又或只是數載,就取決於雙方能否珍惜而矣。





    所以, 要珍惜這緣。


    David Leung (theorydavid)

    2013-09-10 (published)

    比說聲 "我愛你" 更有價值的是: "對不起"-final edited Video


    前言: 在華人的愛情文化裡,很多時候,能夠真摯衷誠地向對方說一聲 “對不起”,是勝過說一萬句 “我愛你”。



    例如,既然原文的英文歌名是 Tear Stains,就不是星座,雖然歌曲中有提及星座 (Constellation)。這不夠詩意。
    再者,Stains 是那些抹不去的痕跡,所以我就索性翻為: 眼淚星痕
    因 upload 檔案的問題,技術所限,所以影像不理想,希望日後能夠改善。而且,影片也重新翦輯,部份歌詞也重新翻譯。重要的對白也加上了,使主題意義也更清晰。
    我的 youtube link of this video:
    在我們的文化裡,能夠坦率地表達情感已是不常有。更可悲的是,假如事情牽涉到面子,更不會輕易妥協。這就是我們的所謂傳統。 熱戀中的朋友也沒有例外, 帶來的結果只會令雙方造成更多傷害。
    1.  剛才 Sun 告訴我,這是寫給我的歌 (眼淚星座),我有這個資格嗎?
    2.  我因為自己受了傷,也曾令你受了很多傷害。真的………. 對不起……..
    3.  其實,愛吃栗子的是我,沒有錯。但芝士蛋糕的是另外的女人。可是….. 我還是愛你,崔祐英!…….
    這使我想起林夕那首得獎歌 “曾經” 裡其中的歌詞: 
    可是,逝去的時光可以追回來嗎? 機會還會再來嗎?
    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2013-08-30  Published

    深情與摯誠 (全文)

    前言: 在分析藝術作品時,不論是音樂,繪畫,文章,詩詞,電影和劇集也好,究竟可以用甚麼準則去衡量作品的好與壞呢? 你可以說有很多藝術分析理論,不論深淺,都可以應用,都是合適的。但如果我們只考慮就這麼一點點,就是找個簡潔易懂的準則去探討作品如何能牽動自己的感情起伏,從而使作為欣賞者的自己能忘我地投進作品的美學世界裡; 那麼,對於我來說,”深情與摯誠” 這條準則,無疑是可靠的。

    “深情與摯誠” 是我中學時代所學的第一個文學分析理論。今天的中學生應該不知道這篇文章,因它不是應讀的範文。但它卻陪伴過我踏遍無數各種各色藝術作品的內心世界,探討了,領悟了自己從未想過的,未學過的,未明白過的情感哲理和人生美學。

    謝謝那兩篇一英一中的短篇故事和隨筆 — I Love My SisterLKF。在寫作修辭的技巧上而言,這兩篇可能只算是入門水平的作品,卻能激動了我去提筆重寫那我已很多很多年,沒有寫過的舒情散文和小品隨筆。誰說只有洋洋數萬字的學術論文才是有貢獻的,有價值的寫作? 那能觸動心弦的,摯誠的,何嘗不能醉人心窩,縈繞心頭,讀後仍能留下一臉淚水! 藝術分析理論中的移情作用,是可以發生在欣賞者的身上。

    真的很多年了! 近十多年所寫的全都是學術性文章。


    對於粵語流行曲,仍是喜歡那舊歌,想我是老了! 現在的流行曲歌詞,文采欠奉,文筆又不夠,雖感情是有的,但沒有好的文字表達能力,如何能負載真摯的情感。正所謂情不真,意不誠,那有佳作。簡單來說,文學理論 “深情與摯誠” 這個衡量準則,就是看看文章或歌詞所表達的,是有沒有流露出真摯的,不造作的誠懇感情,從而打動人心。

    林夕為周慧敏所寫的一首歌,你還記得從前嗎 (可能在這張大碟中全不起眼),所描繪的感情世界使我想起那篇 I Love My Sister 短篇小說。是! 是一份摯誠的感情,主角是澄來的嘛!

    我的填詞老師盧國占先生曾說過,創作只忠於那一剎那的真摯感情。我不曾完全明白。二十年後,直至我在大學研究音樂和美學意義時,頓有所悟。在欣賞作品時,不須拘泥於每個音符,每句句子,或每一段的文章在訴說甚麼,是否在帶動感情。作品感人的地方,能使人難忘的,感情揮之不去的,往往就只有那幾個片段 (fragments)。原來欣賞的,也是那一剎那的縈繞心頭,美的反應也就是存在那短暫的瞬間吧了。

    你還記得從前嗎  這首歌可能並不是佳篇,但佳句就肯定有。我亦想起盧國沾老師所說的遺憾: “寫了這麼多年歌詞,作品就只有佳句而無佳篇。”



    (女) 是否情謎和依戀,不足夠將我活埋,還是彼比相愛不等於了解。



    讓我們走進這幾句歌詞的感情世界看看。隨著女方長大成熟,看見的愛情世界不一樣了。男方看來在感情方面,還是停留在起初熱戀浪漫的 puppy love 階段。她真的越來越看不懂他的世界。起初熱戀的浪漫是不足夠將自己對情愛的理性追求完全掩蓋,這是多麼可悲。成熟,自省的結果在婚姻中是值得嗎? …….

    我個人很喜歡那句:  無奈幸福比青春得更快。這句比喻就只用了一個動詞,就點出了初戀的幸福離開得很快。
    在感情上,她還愛他嗎? 答案很清楚。這是深情的表現。在現實生活裡,你可曾有過這樣的體會嗎?  很多是嗎? 可是,人真的能不長大嗎?


    這又使我想起譚詠麟的遲來的春天。作詞的是向雪懷先生 (原名是陳劍和)。


    誰人將一點愛, 出希望,


    真的! 詞中主人公的處景,可能是我們朋友的真實經驗。但這一種特別的感情,是 ‘閃’出來的,也就是從來沒想過,無期望過。所以,感覺是真的,是誠的。

    可是,有時對人對自身感情自省的結果,並不一定像尹恩惠在 對我說謊試試 一劇中,可以為自已舖展幸福的未來。對這個年紀的人來說,能把握和珍惜閃出的 ‘愛’ 已是太奢侈了。

    詞中的主人公所感受的,全在這一個 ‘錯’ 字。張力也在此。理性上不能做,但感性上卻禁不來。所以仍是錯了。所以,我常常犯錯。







    文字雖沒有柳永的好,但向雪懷的 ‘縱有熱情,’難再開放’ 也流露出近似柳永這份誠意。

    如加上這道 ‘牆’,又如何?  感情的張力會更大嗎?

    這道牆是甚麼? 是年紀麼? 當然是。但還有甚麼?
    可堪回味的就在此。可以有更多。背景,地位,家人,朋友,社區眼光,道德規限,倫理標準 …….,又或是要對多年陪伴的另一半應盡的情義等。




    這份感情是真的,深的,摯誠的,但如何? 人又能怎樣? 有誰可對之傾訴。



    副歌真的是感情真摯。在現實生活裡,兩人結合,從各自的路,匯合走上同一條路,雖說是絪緣際會,不經過理性上的自省而選擇,只隨感覺而行,但就如林夕所描寫一樣,彷彿看來是最美滿的畫。 可是,現實的相處卻是另一回事。當到面前實現時就像笑話。請停下來想想,環顧四周,這又豈不是我們的真實體驗麼?

    雖是比喻,也是真誠的描寫。你看過印象派的畫嗎? 試過走近三呎來看嗎? 遠看是美極了。但近看是……
    不用提…… 像是所有汚點都放大,影象也不清楚。


    就如澄的學期論文有關貝多芬交響曲的詮釋,始終如國學大師王國維先生在人間詞話所言,在感性分析上是有所 “隔”。只因作者未能真正用到內心去感受領悟樂音,只用頭腦去了解樂譜的技巧。

    I Love My Sister 裡的角色的感情世界 (不是情節舖排),就如林夕這首歌的主人公的對換,角度也是從未成熟的女方那面而出發的。但在描繪到當女方驟然發覺愛人所愛的是自已的姊姊時,那份失落的感情就流露出女性獨有的那份內斂和深邃,感情倒是真摯。令人可堪回味的,我看還是女方那還未成熟到能了解男方感情世界時所散發出的純真和浪漫,應不是澄嘛! 我特別欣賞這個天真得儍裡儍氣的小女孩,就連與愛人約會也要姊姊相伴。在她的感情世界裡,倒是分不開蘿漫蒂克的愛和相依為命的親情的愛。要知道蘿漫蒂克的愛戀是含有健康的嫉妒。這是對的,合理的; 是帶有承諾的,有責任的,有情義的,因為這情感只是屬於兩個人之間的,是不能包含外人。這跟其他形式的愛有所不同,更遑論是相依為命的親情。

    可是,這又使我想起那個看似擁有無限精力去表現愛的鈴木保代美,在 東京愛情故事 (80年代柴門文的著名漫畫改編的劇集) 一劇裡,就是不懂區分何為男女的真愛 (蘿漫蒂克的愛) 和 博愛 (對其他人表現的仁慈和關愛)。結果,始終都未能與真心相愛的男主角開花結果。在感情生活上,為自己帶來無盡的思念和遺憾。所以,鈴木保代美的愛,正如劇中的對白所言: 愛是很疲累的。儍裡儍氣的小女孩的愛戀也會很疲累,不是嗎?

    我看兩位主人公不同之處,只在於 I Love My Sister 的女孩在感情上是在成長階段,還未成熟,但她終有一日會成熟地處理感情的事。而東京愛情故事 中的鈴木保代美則是性格使然。她永不會以理性去整理自己的感情。她不是不成熟,反之,在劇中她更是處事能力很高。但在愛情上,卻又那麼天真,那麼幼稚。



    至於那篇名為 LKF 的隨筆,最感動我的,反而是在我的思想上,感情上,和道德上不能容忍的那一段描述。關於這點,我就不再在這裡覆述了。請參看拙作 “離別與思念“。 所以,在分析上,困難的地方,往往是分析者對作者有著深厚,近乎主觀的情感。這使在觀察作品時很易流於主觀。不過,話得說回來,世上那有完全客觀的評論。











    例如,城市足印 中描寫在現代生活中,人與人之間的冷寞是這樣描繪的:



    而馮德基在 昨夜渡輪上 就會這樣寫:









    我不知道去衡量一個作品的好壞,用 ‘深情與摯誠’ 這個原則是否常常都那麼有效。但我可以肯定的是,移情作用不單是創作者的獨享的專利,也是讀者或受者可以自由地感受到的。那即是身同感受嘛。當我們用真心去投入作品時,只要是好的作品,不造作,不過度誇張失實,不作無病呻吟,我們就可以發掘出作品的真摯感情出來。這有助於讓作品的誠懇牽引我們自身的真情,使我們更易於投進藝術作品裡的美學世界,領略美的箇中奧妙和真諦。


    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2013-07-27 (published)

    Music and Arts: Articles and Poems

    I and the village Chagall

    Learn Contemporary Music?

    The Lute Player — Franc Hal

    This is Young Mozart!

    Presentation of young Mozart to Pompadour 1763 Vicente de Paredes

    Life Long Learning is a Pleasure -- Contact Leung Sir

    Lady sit At the Virginal — Vermeer

    SC 2012 Concerts (1800 attendants)

    Pierre Auguste Renoir

    Sunrise - Monet

    The Swing - JeanHonore Fragonard

    Jastrow Duck Fliegende

    The Music -- Klimt (Modernism in Vienna)
    The Music - Klimt (Modernism in Vienna)

    Distorted image - Korean Artist



    David - Teniers and the Cabinet of Archduke Leopold William
    Jastrow Duck Fliegende

    Two-women Waltzing - Toulouse-lautrec

    Composition - Kandinsky


    Violin Sonata in D major - midi composition modelling

    Elizabeth At The Piano - Eakins

    The Love letter - Vermeer

    Armand Guillaumin - Young Girl at PianoYoung Young Girl at Piano - Armand Guillaumin