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    An Interpretation of Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations in Cm

    Based on the Reference:董學渝. The Studies of Beethoven Diabelli Variations and Thirty-Two Variations in C Minor. 全音音樂出版社, 1992.




    From 1782 when the nine variations were firstly written for the piano movement in Nine Variations on a March by Dressler woo.63 onward, Beethoven seemed to be fond of using variations, a conventional compositional practice, for his compositions until his last string quartet op.135 in 1826. In fact, throughout his life long career, Beethoven has composed various genres of instrumental work including Theme-and-Variations, and lengthy compositions of more than sixty pieces with variation movements. These works include symphony, piano sonata and string quartet, such as Sonata op.26, op.109, op.111, Symphony no. 9 in D minor, and the late quartets op.127, op.131, op.132 and op.135. Even in Beethoven’s late style, the last six string quartets in particular, never fails to reflect his profound nostalgia on the fading classical beauty and elegance exhibiting in the form of variation for some movements. Unlike those variation movements in a multi-movements piece, the Diabelli Variations op.120, is Beethoven’s last large-scale Theme-and-Variations for solo piano.


    In Beethoven’s early compositional career before 1799, he has already composed twelve pieces of Theme-and-Variations for solo piano. During this period, Beethoven favored to employ popular tunes, such as an aria of the current opera, as the main theme, and varied it in a free quasi-improvisatory way, aiming to display his technical skills and compositional talents. This is a common performance practice in the classical period, since composers did not possess independent financial sources other than patronized support. They needed to display their music capabilities in the court gatherings or salon concerts, in order to attract commissions or careers from the aristocratic circle. Playing brilliant variations on the keyboard based on the given theme became an “examination” for the musicians in the classical period.


    After 1800, Beethoven began to write his own theme for variations. This demonstrates that Beethoven no longer treated variation just as a game of courtly entertainment or a prerequisite of one’s prospect, but an artistic expression of a real gifted artist. Six Variations in F Major op.34 and Eroica Variations in Eb Major op.35 for piano solo written in this period are exemplar of Beethoven’s stylistic change. He even put his own heroic “portrait” in these works, expressing none of the structural order of the classicism, but reflecting his imaginative ideas and romantic emotions through every nuance of the sonic picture. Hence, the achievement of these two sets of piano variations are claimed to be parallel with his remarkable middle-period symphonic works, which marked Beethoven to be one of the greatest masters in the music history.


    Beethoven’s own idiosyncratic “Oedipus Rex” on the Baroque elegance came from his Thirty-Two Variations in C minor woo.80 written in 1806. He employed chaconne, an almost outmoded Baroque stylistic dance, as the main musical form for Cm Variations. The entire work is developed from the ostinato recurring in the bass. Each variation, being created with different melodic lines, aims to constitute a complex contrapuntal fabric, which never fails to exhibit Beethoven’s audacity and inventiveness. If one claims that it was Beethoven’s deafness to move him relying on writing contrapuntally, this would only overlook the significance of Baroque polyphonic beauty and Beethoven’s own nostalgic passion on the conventional counterpoint. Thirty-two variations in Cm woo.80, thus, is regarded as the forerunner of the great piano variation composition, Diabelli, appearing a few years later.


    Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations op.120 was composed between a rather long period of five years from 1819 to 1823. Hence, there is no surprise that the work is pervaded with late Beethovean compositional style. In Beethoven’s later life, after experiencing a series of pains and sufferings, he valued spiritual sublimity in lieu of the superficial formalistic shackle by means of his several master works such as Missa Solemnis, Piano Sonata op. 109, op.110 and op.111. Through his music, Beethoven attained a level that reflects his profound understanding of the natural human desire – longing for approaching God – was lofty transcended. The Diabelli Variations op. 120 can be regarded as such music. When the time this Variation was composed, Beethoven’s tragic life reached the zenith. He was almost deaf. He was fiercely sick. He was fully exhausted because of the notoriety of his adopted son, the ex-nephew Carl. But even being faced with the most serious adversity, Beethoven the composer never lost the jewel in his crown. His late style music showed that he was unrestrained from the outer bondage of the imposed formalism, stepping into a more inner, imaginative world of spiritual realm. Diabelli Variations is such a musical work that not only did Beethoven crystallize the classical tribute, but he also created a Romantic legacy for the future coming generations. In this work, Beethoven ingenuously incorporated a dualistic style that is a well blending composite of classical melodic eloquence and Baroque contrapuntal beauty, but at the same time, not losing the Romantic sound of multifarious colors. Therefore, it is no surprise that Beethoven music can be regarded as “circum-polar”, according to the renowned musicologist, Carl Dahlhaus. Tovey, another well-known English music commentator, also asserted that “Beethoven’s Diabelli is an unprecedented piano work, which can be said as one of the greatest theme-and-variation compositions that will remain influential for many later coming eras.”


    Variation Techniques:


      1. Melody


    <1>Turn figure:


    The use of “turn” figure aims to embellish the thematic melody can express the tender and delicate characters of Beethoven’s individual compositional style. Such melodic figuration often permeates an aura of classical grace, elegance and eloquence to audience. Typical examples of such variations can be found in no. 3, 4, 11, 12, 18, 21 and the coda.


      <2>Trill figure, arpeggiation, running scalar passage:


    Beethoven favors to employ such compositional devices to display his passionate fury, at times parodic, and at the other times, seriously designed.


    The examples of using these devices are as follows:

    Trill figure: Variation no. 6, 16, 21

    Arpeggiation: Variation no. 6, 7, 19, 25

    Running Scalar Passage: Variation no. 10, 22, 23, 27, 31 and 32.


      <3>Short fragmented motive and Cantabile melody:


    Beethoven’s unique compositional skill is to cut off a detached, short motive from the main theme to developing the whole piece. The advantage of a short motive is its impressive and catchy nature. One example can be found in Variation no. 9.


    Beethoven also likes to create a singable, lyrical melody, also because of its catchy and memorable nature, to form part of the variation. No matter the variation is based on a short, decisive motive or a lengthy cantabile melody, Beethoven displayed it in a catchy solo, or elaborated it with contrapuntal lines, constituting a sonic fabric. Examples are found in Variation no. 3, 4, 11, 12.



      <4>Newly created Melody:


    Beethoven, as an inventive composer, never forgets to create something new and fresh for his compositions, even for the theme and variations. As such, there is no surprise that Beethoven creates new melodic themes and motives for his Diabelli Variations, sustaining the fresh, impressive characters of the music. Examples are no. 8, 12, 18, 27, 30 and 31.


    1. Rhythm


      <1>Skillful rhythmic complex:

    The rhythmic complex aims to expand a wide range of rhythmic patterns to each variation.


    1. Use of rests to disrupt the natural flowing of the melodic line, so as to create an unusual rhythmic pattern, for example, Variation no. 13, and 22.
    2. Use of irregular accents to disrupt the natural flowing of the melodic line, so as to create a fresh musical motion, for example, Variation no. 1, 4, 5, 7, 9, 27 28, 32 and the coda.


      <2>Change of rhythmic patterns:


    The function of rapid change of rhythmic pattern is for the purpose of adding dramatic and coloristic effects to the variations, as well as creating a shift of meters or metrical accents of the music structure.


      1. Use of hemiola, (beating in 3 against 2 or vice versa), to create a shift of meter from duple to triple time or vice versa, for instance, Variation no. 26.

    Create syncopation with tie notes across bar line to create an effect of sluggish motion, disrupting the regular rhythmic flowing, for instance, Variation no. 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 15, 19, and the coda.

    Use syncopated rhythmic pattern to create an illusion of shift of metrical accents, for example, Variation no. 2.


    1. Harmony and Tonality


    Beethoven intentionally uses chromatic altered chords to enhance the dramatic and coloristic effects.


      <1>Full Diminished Seventh Chord:

    Several examples employing diminished seventh chord to create non-functional harmonic motion, tonal ambiguity and rapid shift of tonicized levels are Variations no. 3, 4, 11, 12.


      <2>Neapolitan Sixth Chord (bII level):

    Flattened Second, a chromatic device favored by Schubert, whether appearing in the level of chord or key, is an effective device to create a feeling of Romantic “Distance”, which is in fact an aesthetic philosophy commonly found in the late coming Romantic compositions, such as Schumann’s piano cycle, Papillon op.2. Beethovan’s Variation no. 5, 9, 30 in Diabelli foreshadows such aesthetic significance.


      <3>Consecutive Chromatic Scalar Passage:

    It is a long tradition for music to express emotions and passions with a running chromatic scalar passage. Variation no.9, 20, 22 are typical examples to enhance a similar effect.


    1. Articulation:


    Beethoven employs sudden dynamic markings to vary the melody, in order to create a dramatic effect. Indeed, dramatic contrast is one of Beethoven’s musical characteristics. His brilliant fanfare-like propelling piano sonority is largely based on the pianistic idiom of ongoing changes of dynamics and tempos. Music under the support of such idiomatic passages can widen the expressiveness of the work.


      1. Beethoven uses a wide range of dynamic markings such as “ff”, “fp”, “sf” in the work. This helps to display a Romantic colored network. Examples are Variation no. 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 21, 22, 28 etc.

    The use of the dynamic markings of “pp” and “fp” tends to bring out the classical style of grace and elegance. Variation no. 2, 3, 4, 8, 21, 33 and the coda are the exemplar.




    Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations op. 120, is regarded as a great master work of the same generic repertoire. Through this work, we can experience how Beethoven exploits his unrestrained imagination and strict-disciplined convention, attaining a transcended spiritual state, which is a realm of no ancestor ever enters. Its influences are tremendous and long-lasting. No matter it is Schumann’s famous Symphonic Etudes, or Brahms’s Variations on a Theme of Handel, these works follow the traits established by Beethoven to develop the genre to the full. 19th century composers even employed various variation techniques to enrich the musical garden, helping to develop a brilliant era of Romanticism, which is an important phase of the evolution of the entire western music history.

    2017-03-17 (Published)
    David Leung

    AMusTCL – Discussion of the Question about Schubert’s Symphony



    One student gave me her draft of the answer for a question about the set piece of the AMusTCL examination. As I find that this is a good opportunity for me to share a view on how a student can make the argument better when dealing with the essay question, I rework her writing for reference, hoping that readers and students can grasp an idea of how to answer effectively in order to meet the requirement of the examination.




    AMusTCL 2010 May: Set Piece – Symphony no.5 in Bb major by Schubert




    To what extend does Schubert’s Symphony no.5 reflect the past and yet also herald the future?

    Give specific examples in support of your answer.


    Answer Reworking:


    From the preliminary inspection, Schubert’s Symphony no. 5 not only follows the typical Classical four-movement plan, comprising the Sonata-allegro first and finale movements in Bb major home key, as well as the Slow second and Minuet-Trio-Minuet third movements in Eb sub-dominant major and G sub-mediant minor; but also employs a comparatively small instrumentation without the usual trumpets and timpani, aiming to reflect the ineffable lightness of the chamber-like “pre-classical” sound. To many scholars, this work is said to be under the strong influence of Mozart’s Symphony no. 40 in G minor, K.550, expressing Schubert’s sincere reverence for the past great symphonic masters in the Viennese Biedermeire period (a period of revival of the classical beauty in arts) around 1816. However, Schubert’s idiosyncratic uses of chromatic median relationship and rich chromatic harmonies in setting the tonal structures of the movements can also show that this taken-for-granted ‘classical’ sound is tinted with a few colored spots, which are some signs of, as they were, heralding the forthcoming nineteenth century German Romanticism. Some evidences of the symphony will be discussed to support my argument.


    Except for returning the principal theme in subdominant key in the Recapitulation and adding an additional 16 bars of new materials before the final coda, Schubert employs the conventional sonata form for the first movement, and begins his pursuit of the esteemed classical past by means of the light-hearted upward projecting tonic triad as the principal theme (mm.5-6). The secure manifestation of the tonic-dominant relationship between the principal and secondary themes in the exposition, together with the use of sequences as the chief developing devices never fails to display Schubert’s nostalgia of the classical heydays. Audiences are easily recalled the classical beauty of elegance and grace through the lively flowing of the dance-like thematic tune. In the opening of the Slow movement, Schubert uses pure strings to express a somewhat light and transparent simplicity (mm.1-8). The pastoral folk tune sings naturally through the less-weighted chamber-like accompaniment, seemingly to suggest a Mozartian aria in the sense that the air-light melody reigns supreme and that one could sings through (cantabile) (mm.1-8).


    In the third movement of Haydian courtly dance, Minuet and Trio, Schubert adopts the same key (G minor), as well as the same style of tune, as Mozart did in the third movement of G minor Symphony K550. By alluding to the great master, the musical style turns out to be more Mozartian to some extent, yet reflecting the classical milieu in an anxious way. Does Schubert feel the anxiety of influence when he realizes that this Mozartian apprenticeship is appearing in the music? Thanks to his holding on to the classical Empfinsamkeit Stile. Schubert employs a gloomy, however fearful, full diminished seventh chord immediately to line up with the previous contrasting brilliant rocket monophonic tutti rushing upward in the opening phrase (mm.1-5). As the straightforward musical balance is seemingly broken down suddenly, audiences are easily reminded of a widely spread aesthetic principle, the illusion of order, which is an important classical ideal emphasis on how music operates its turbulence and irregularity behind an orderly and straightforward surface. In addition, the sunny G major key in the Trio section also enhances the contrasting G minor key of the somber, yet stormy, Minuet section, and further upholds the classical ideal of illusion of order. Last but not least, Schubert’s remembrance of the past can be experienced in the finale by means of using the conventional sonata form again. Symmetrical phrases, chamber style textures, and symmetrical melodic theme in the exposition may simply suggest how Schubert can skillfully adopt and adapt the past stylistic features so as to exhibit this symphony as the classical prestige (mm.1-16).


    However, from the close inspection, Schubert’s using of his own characterized chromatic devices seems to voice the Romantic future to some extent. As an initiator of German Lied, Schubert often uses remote keys in the modulation in order to express his subtle changes of emotion in many of his songs. Similarly, one can never fail to find such adventurous modulation in the sub-surface of this symphony. One of the most significant examples can be found in the development section of the first movement. Here, instead of using the conventional cycle of fifth relationship to display the motives in various keys, Schubert uses median relationship to create four modulatory harmonic sequences, in order to develop the principal motives (mm.118-136). In the Rondo sections of the second movement, for instance, Schubert further exploits his personal favorite of mediant relationship by changing it to the chromatic mediant relationship, which consists of bVI (Cb major) and bIII (Gb major) keys contrasting with the Eb home key in the couplets. Apart from the frequent uses of augmented sixth chords and diminished seventh chords, Neapolitian sixth (flattened second), a Schubertian chord of sorrow and grief used in many art songs, are employed boldly in the linking passage of this movement, so as to produce a sudden dramatic gloomy feeling (bars 24-25). A long cadential extension with repeated deceptive cadences (V – bVI) can also be found in the last coda passage (mm.128-136). Such use of prolonged deceptive cadential setting aims to express the subtle change of the composer’s feelings and moods, which in fact, a salient stylistic trait of Romantic expression found in many compositions of the later decade. In the development of the last movement, chromatic inflected motivic tetrachord is used (m.184), so as to contrast with the opening motivic tetrachord in diatonic nature (m.1) for producing a deep emotion, and both of the dramatic and symphonic effects.


    From the examples mentioned above, we can see how Schubert’s Bb symphony shows the reminiscence of the Classical past, and while at the same time, anticipates the Romantic future.


    David Leung (theorydavid)

    2014-10-30 (published)

    How is a Program Note written? What is its value? — Lost Memories




    One of my students has composed a piece of computer music. Her creative idea sounds interesting. The inspiration comes from a psychoanalytical process — the repressed memory and its evocation. However, she finds difficult to write an impressive program note to catch the eyes of the highbrow concertgoers, though her music sounds not bad. Since she and I understand the artistic value of a program for a musical artwork, after catching the meaning of the ideas from a few lines of her writing, I rework on the program note again for her as an sample, aiming to help her to understand how to write an outstanding program note.


    The Essay:


    Firstly, I copy a few original sentences from her writing for reference. Readers can acquire an overall idea of her computer music.


    Her program note is as follows:


    Sometimes people ‘choose’ to forget or distort their bad memories, the distorted memories might even turn to fact and lying to themselves. Those memories, however, would have been recalled unexpectedly by some of the object, people and places.

    ‘Lost memories’ is the frozen anxiety moment of the recalling of the memories, which is fragmented and blurred.

    “Lost memories” divided into 8 sections, which represented by 8 boxes on the graphic scores. Each box of patterns describes the musical texture, timbre and the flow of the section.


    Delicate piano in high register and the edited piercing piano surrounded by crispy, glassy sounds.

    Through musical representation, the used of music box is symbolizing the appearance of memories in the first section and getting blur in the last section.

    The sample of heartbeat not only as the rhythm beat in section 7, but also mixed in the near layer in order to create the nervously feeling.

    Beside the vertical texture, there are some uses of mixing designs to create the depth layers in this work.

    The technique of Musique concreete is used in ‘Recalling lost memories’. Ambient sound on the street are recorded and mixed in the ‘far’ layer.

    It is implicating the lost moment when somebody standing in the middle of the crowded street, but feel the inexistent of the world.


    Her program note finished




    My reworking of the program note is as follows:


    Lost Memories


    Memory is somewhat selective in nature. We, at times, would like to choose to forget our unpleasant memories. These repressed memories lay seemingly idle in the dark side of our unconsciousness, waiting silently for, and looking forward to a very moment to awake. Be it a special object, a nostalgic milieu, a familiar place, or a strange person, the shards of the “lost” memories, however tiny, will be recalled in such a particular instance in my hypnotic psychological journey of Lost Memories.


    My work, Lost Memories, starts off its musical journey of eight various textural and timbral sections in the almost motionless pace. The unpleasant memories, albeit in a vague fragment, are frozen in the dark side. After a short static moment, the natural delicate piano, together with the edited piercing piano, which is embraced by the crispy and glassy droplet of sounds, hovers along the high register. The piano becomes the first visitor to unlock the door of the frozen space, preparing for a moment of agitated anxiety, a moment of sudden recollection. Then, the sound of music box, representing the appearance of the “lost”, yet unpleasant, memories stealthily steps in.


    The very nervous moment in section 7 is created by the heartbeat sound sample, serving not only as the steady rhythmic pulsation, but also as the massive sonic stratum by integrating with the adjacent layers. Apart from its complex appearance, however, a sonic depth is created between each sound layer in the stratum by means of the mixing technique, in order to produce a feeling of “distance” to the audience.


    As the “lost” memories are usually conjured up involuntarily in a particular circumstance of a particular moment, Lost Memories employs the technique of Musique Concréte, which was invented by Pierre Schaeffer in 1948. I place a live-recorded sampling of an ambient sound of the street in the far off sonic layer moving behind the main sound mass, in order to create a sense of out-of-the-world of an alienated mind lost in the crowded street.


    ***Program note finished***






    Instead of editing, I rework on the program note as a sample for reference. Since a program note (text portion) is an inseparable part, rather than an auxiliary reference, of a musical artwork. As such, the program note needs to be written as artistic as it can since a composition is an art work.

    Of course, the above sample is NOT the only way to write a program note of a musical work. However, readers can still discover some valuable points worthy of considering:


    1. To introduce the musical idea in the first paragraph.(We inform the audience about the professional/psychoanalytical views of the selective memory and unconsciousness). Afterward, we connect the psychoanalytical idea with the musical artwork itself in the last sentence.

    2. To analyze part of the music in the second (the beginning) and the third (the climax) paragraphs.(We write the sound analysis, which is usually absent in many current program notes. Indeed audience are not interested in reading the score analysis and formal description from the program note.)

    3. To inform the audience/readers what special techniques that the composer has employed for this work.

    4. Lastly, the composer can learn thinking of and writing in “poetic metaphor”, which are very important creative skills not only for program note writing, but also for music composing.






    David Leung (theorydavid)

    2014-04-07 (published)


    文字何價? : 電影 “偷書賊” 觀後感


    踏入了2014年,還沒有寫過第一篇文章,皆因在朋友幫助我下,正設計我個人的新網站 (。我希望的網站不是純為做宣傳,買廣告,找生活。所以,我的網站也收錄了我這兩年多所寫的大部份文章和詩詞。將來,我也會在新網站陸續發表我已前出版過的有關音樂的學術論文。

    當然,我暫時不準備取銷這個個人網誌。各方好友,讀者,仍然可以透過這個網誌,看我的寫作。不過,我也會同時發表我的文章於私人的網站。因此,我也懇請各方有心之好友,抽空流覽這個新網站,予以支持。私人網站的成立是有需要的。或許有一天,google 會像 yahoo 一樣取銷免費的個人 blogger,如有自己的網站,我的文章就不至於沒有發表的渠道。因為,我是算自己是半個藝術家,作家和作曲家。


    電影 ‘偷書賊’,就啟發了我這篇文章。


    如果有空閒時,我倒邀請各方好友,去看一套電影名叫 “The Book Thief”, 中譯 “偷書賊” 。當然,閱讀原著小說也可。據說小說也是真人真事改編。


    我早前去看了電影。在看之前剛好收到一位學生的電郵 ,也道出了她對這戲的欣賞,並說這電影很感人。

    電影的中心思想,是道出文字本質的價值。文字是甚麼? 為何能長存於人類歷史當中? 有人類存在,看來就有文字記錄。或許有些人認為,文字只是人與人溝通的一個實體記錄。小學課本常說是因為人在日常生活中,常常忘記了與別人談過的說話,又或對事物的善忘,為了解決這個問題而發明了文字,以此作為實體的記錄和憑據。

    可是,電影再次提醒我們,文字的存在和人類思想的永恆是息息相關,永不分離的。人與動物禽獸的最大分別,就是人類是有思想的,所以思想是無價,也因此,文字同樣是無價 。小女孩無錢買書,所以偷書,就是為了閱讀别人的文字。她深知,如果她懂得閱讀文字,就可以進入别人的內心世界,了解別人的感情和思想。這價值是無其他東西可比擬的。如果她懂寫作,她就可以通過自己的文字,與別人建立一個可以互相共享的思想和感情的世界。這是現代的溝通工具如 whatsapp,wechat,手電等不能取代。


    戲中的男主角是在大戰期間被 Nazi (納粹德國)追捕的 Jew (猶太人)。他躲在女孩子家中的地牢生活。可能是為了解悶,他每天都鼓勵女孩閱讀,表達和寫作。他每天在不見天日的地牢裡,鼓勵女孩給他描述當天的天氣怎樣。他不準許女孩只直述每天天氣的狀況,如今天天晴,或今天下雪等。他要求女孩用比喻去形容天氣,如今天陰霾,她就要說 “today is thunder dark.”,而且他更要女孩用說話式的文字去表達自己在這種天氣下的感覺和情緒。是! 用文字講出自己內心感情。

    他教女孩怎樣用文字表達的方式,和我教學生寫音樂文章都很相似。就是多用比喻去表達,用比較去作樂曲分析。他不止用口頭鼓勵女孩多閱讀,還送了一本空白頁的記事薄給女孩作禮物,鼓勵她要寫作,要用文字記下她自己的思想和感情。但好景不常,Nazi 的蓋世太保要搜屋捉人,為了確保女孩一家的安全,他一定要逃走。

    臨行前,女孩捨不得這個後來是她一生的摯友的離開,就死拉著他的手不放,但男主角(比她年紀大很多) 卻對她這樣說:

    “You never lose me. You can always see me in your words.”


    他說這話的意思,不是單單鼓勵女孩寫下自己對摯友別離的思念。而是提醒女孩,每逢她用文字寫作,每論在寫甚麼的時候,就會想起他這個曾經教導過,鼓勵過自己的摯友。只要女孩繼續寫作,無論他日後是死是生,’他’ 是永遠地活著,永遠地陪伴著自己。

    男主角離開後,女孩就發現牆壁上寫著: Writing! (寫作!)





    “Word is the vessel of thoughts.”



    ” Word is not only the vessel of thoughts, but also the container of affection, the redemption of the missing.”




    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2014-03-06 (published)










    詩就寫完了,結果是聽到笑聲與否,都不再重要。贈送禮物,當然喜歡接受者歡顏,不喜歡,又能怎樣。說起討人一笑,也記起很多年前有個朋友,希望跟女朋友見面時,送上一份純心意,不含任何金錢價值的禮物予對方。一方面希望對方意會其濃情厚意,另一方面,也算是給對方一個意外驚喜。原來他想親自為其朋友最喜歡的一首英文歌填上中文歌詞,帶朋友到一個幽靜的地方,然後唱給對方聽,兼向對方表白。當時還未流行 Karaoke,所以做這些安排就頗費心思。首先,當然就是填詞工作。然後就練歌,背歌詞,錄音樂等。問題來了,我朋友是不懂音律,又無文采,怎樣填上能向對方表白之心意之詞呢?


    於是,我們就在電話裡一起 (其實全部由本人包辦) 為 Reality 這首當時很流行的英文歌填上了歌詞。

    偶遇 (調寄 Reality)




    結果如何? 想不到就是這數十年後的翻版。朋友的女友的反應就是,Ha Ha 兩聲…. 幾得意啊! 禮貌的回應一句,就不再提了。禮物的記念價值果真不及實用價值了。朋友真的後悔,就說 “早知買隻戒指送俾佢啦。”





    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2013-12-13 (published)

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    Music and Arts: Articles and Poems

    I and the village Chagall

    Learn Contemporary Music?

    The Lute Player — Franc Hal

    This is Young Mozart!

    Presentation of young Mozart to Pompadour 1763 Vicente de Paredes

    Life Long Learning is a Pleasure -- Contact Leung Sir

    Lady sit At the Virginal — Vermeer

    SC 2012 Concerts (1800 attendants)

    Pierre Auguste Renoir

    Sunrise - Monet

    The Swing - JeanHonore Fragonard

    Jastrow Duck Fliegende

    The Music -- Klimt (Modernism in Vienna)
    The Music - Klimt (Modernism in Vienna)

    Distorted image - Korean Artist



    David - Teniers and the Cabinet of Archduke Leopold William
    Jastrow Duck Fliegende

    Two-women Waltzing - Toulouse-lautrec

    Composition - Kandinsky


    Violin Sonata in D major - midi composition modelling

    Elizabeth At The Piano - Eakins

    The Love letter - Vermeer

    Armand Guillaumin - Young Girl at PianoYoung Young Girl at Piano - Armand Guillaumin