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    AMusTCL – Discussion of the Question about Schubert’s Symphony

    Forward:

     

    One student gave me her draft of the answer for a question about the set piece of the AMusTCL examination. As I find that this is a good opportunity for me to share a view on how a student can make the argument better when dealing with the essay question, I rework her writing for reference, hoping that readers and students can grasp an idea of how to answer effectively in order to meet the requirement of the examination.

     

    Article:

     

    AMusTCL 2010 May: Set Piece – Symphony no.5 in Bb major by Schubert

     

    Question:

     

    To what extend does Schubert’s Symphony no.5 reflect the past and yet also herald the future?

    Give specific examples in support of your answer.

     

    Answer Reworking:

     

    From the preliminary inspection, Schubert’s Symphony no. 5 not only follows the typical Classical four-movement plan, comprising the Sonata-allegro first and finale movements in Bb major home key, as well as the Slow second and Minuet-Trio-Minuet third movements in Eb sub-dominant major and G sub-mediant minor; but also employs a comparatively small instrumentation without the usual trumpets and timpani, aiming to reflect the ineffable lightness of the chamber-like “pre-classical” sound. To many scholars, this work is said to be under the strong influence of Mozart’s Symphony no. 40 in G minor, K.550, expressing Schubert’s sincere reverence for the past great symphonic masters in the Viennese Biedermeire period (a period of revival of the classical beauty in arts) around 1816. However, Schubert’s idiosyncratic uses of chromatic median relationship and rich chromatic harmonies in setting the tonal structures of the movements can also show that this taken-for-granted ‘classical’ sound is tinted with a few colored spots, which are some signs of, as they were, heralding the forthcoming nineteenth century German Romanticism. Some evidences of the symphony will be discussed to support my argument.

     

    Except for returning the principal theme in subdominant key in the Recapitulation and adding an additional 16 bars of new materials before the final coda, Schubert employs the conventional sonata form for the first movement, and begins his pursuit of the esteemed classical past by means of the light-hearted upward projecting tonic triad as the principal theme (mm.5-6). The secure manifestation of the tonic-dominant relationship between the principal and secondary themes in the exposition, together with the use of sequences as the chief developing devices never fails to display Schubert’s nostalgia of the classical heydays. Audiences are easily recalled the classical beauty of elegance and grace through the lively flowing of the dance-like thematic tune. In the opening of the Slow movement, Schubert uses pure strings to express a somewhat light and transparent simplicity (mm.1-8). The pastoral folk tune sings naturally through the less-weighted chamber-like accompaniment, seemingly to suggest a Mozartian aria in the sense that the air-light melody reigns supreme and that one could sings through (cantabile) (mm.1-8).

     

    In the third movement of Haydian courtly dance, Minuet and Trio, Schubert adopts the same key (G minor), as well as the same style of tune, as Mozart did in the third movement of G minor Symphony K550. By alluding to the great master, the musical style turns out to be more Mozartian to some extent, yet reflecting the classical milieu in an anxious way. Does Schubert feel the anxiety of influence when he realizes that this Mozartian apprenticeship is appearing in the music? Thanks to his holding on to the classical Empfinsamkeit Stile. Schubert employs a gloomy, however fearful, full diminished seventh chord immediately to line up with the previous contrasting brilliant rocket monophonic tutti rushing upward in the opening phrase (mm.1-5). As the straightforward musical balance is seemingly broken down suddenly, audiences are easily reminded of a widely spread aesthetic principle, the illusion of order, which is an important classical ideal emphasis on how music operates its turbulence and irregularity behind an orderly and straightforward surface. In addition, the sunny G major key in the Trio section also enhances the contrasting G minor key of the somber, yet stormy, Minuet section, and further upholds the classical ideal of illusion of order. Last but not least, Schubert’s remembrance of the past can be experienced in the finale by means of using the conventional sonata form again. Symmetrical phrases, chamber style textures, and symmetrical melodic theme in the exposition may simply suggest how Schubert can skillfully adopt and adapt the past stylistic features so as to exhibit this symphony as the classical prestige (mm.1-16).

     

    However, from the close inspection, Schubert’s using of his own characterized chromatic devices seems to voice the Romantic future to some extent. As an initiator of German Lied, Schubert often uses remote keys in the modulation in order to express his subtle changes of emotion in many of his songs. Similarly, one can never fail to find such adventurous modulation in the sub-surface of this symphony. One of the most significant examples can be found in the development section of the first movement. Here, instead of using the conventional cycle of fifth relationship to display the motives in various keys, Schubert uses median relationship to create four modulatory harmonic sequences, in order to develop the principal motives (mm.118-136). In the Rondo sections of the second movement, for instance, Schubert further exploits his personal favorite of mediant relationship by changing it to the chromatic mediant relationship, which consists of bVI (Cb major) and bIII (Gb major) keys contrasting with the Eb home key in the couplets. Apart from the frequent uses of augmented sixth chords and diminished seventh chords, Neapolitian sixth (flattened second), a Schubertian chord of sorrow and grief used in many art songs, are employed boldly in the linking passage of this movement, so as to produce a sudden dramatic gloomy feeling (bars 24-25). A long cadential extension with repeated deceptive cadences (V – bVI) can also be found in the last coda passage (mm.128-136). Such use of prolonged deceptive cadential setting aims to express the subtle change of the composer’s feelings and moods, which in fact, a salient stylistic trait of Romantic expression found in many compositions of the later decade. In the development of the last movement, chromatic inflected motivic tetrachord is used (m.184), so as to contrast with the opening motivic tetrachord in diatonic nature (m.1) for producing a deep emotion, and both of the dramatic and symphonic effects.

     

    From the examples mentioned above, we can see how Schubert’s Bb symphony shows the reminiscence of the Classical past, and while at the same time, anticipates the Romantic future.

     

    David Leung (theorydavid)

    2014-10-30 (published)

    How is a Program Note written? What is its value? — Lost Memories

     

    Foreword:

     

    One of my students has composed a piece of computer music. Her creative idea sounds interesting. The inspiration comes from a psychoanalytical process — the repressed memory and its evocation. However, she finds difficult to write an impressive program note to catch the eyes of the highbrow concertgoers, though her music sounds not bad. Since she and I understand the artistic value of a program for a musical artwork, after catching the meaning of the ideas from a few lines of her writing, I rework on the program note again for her as an sample, aiming to help her to understand how to write an outstanding program note.

     

    The Essay:

     

    Firstly, I copy a few original sentences from her writing for reference. Readers can acquire an overall idea of her computer music.

     

    Her program note is as follows:

     

    Sometimes people ‘choose’ to forget or distort their bad memories, the distorted memories might even turn to fact and lying to themselves. Those memories, however, would have been recalled unexpectedly by some of the object, people and places.

    ‘Lost memories’ is the frozen anxiety moment of the recalling of the memories, which is fragmented and blurred.

    “Lost memories” divided into 8 sections, which represented by 8 boxes on the graphic scores. Each box of patterns describes the musical texture, timbre and the flow of the section.

     

    Delicate piano in high register and the edited piercing piano surrounded by crispy, glassy sounds.

    Through musical representation, the used of music box is symbolizing the appearance of memories in the first section and getting blur in the last section.

    The sample of heartbeat not only as the rhythm beat in section 7, but also mixed in the near layer in order to create the nervously feeling.

    Beside the vertical texture, there are some uses of mixing designs to create the depth layers in this work.

    The technique of Musique concreete is used in ‘Recalling lost memories’. Ambient sound on the street are recorded and mixed in the ‘far’ layer.

    It is implicating the lost moment when somebody standing in the middle of the crowded street, but feel the inexistent of the world.

     

    Her program note finished

     

    *****************************

     

    My reworking of the program note is as follows:

     

    Lost Memories

     

    Memory is somewhat selective in nature. We, at times, would like to choose to forget our unpleasant memories. These repressed memories lay seemingly idle in the dark side of our unconsciousness, waiting silently for, and looking forward to a very moment to awake. Be it a special object, a nostalgic milieu, a familiar place, or a strange person, the shards of the “lost” memories, however tiny, will be recalled in such a particular instance in my hypnotic psychological journey of Lost Memories.

     

    My work, Lost Memories, starts off its musical journey of eight various textural and timbral sections in the almost motionless pace. The unpleasant memories, albeit in a vague fragment, are frozen in the dark side. After a short static moment, the natural delicate piano, together with the edited piercing piano, which is embraced by the crispy and glassy droplet of sounds, hovers along the high register. The piano becomes the first visitor to unlock the door of the frozen space, preparing for a moment of agitated anxiety, a moment of sudden recollection. Then, the sound of music box, representing the appearance of the “lost”, yet unpleasant, memories stealthily steps in.

     

    The very nervous moment in section 7 is created by the heartbeat sound sample, serving not only as the steady rhythmic pulsation, but also as the massive sonic stratum by integrating with the adjacent layers. Apart from its complex appearance, however, a sonic depth is created between each sound layer in the stratum by means of the mixing technique, in order to produce a feeling of “distance” to the audience.

     

    As the “lost” memories are usually conjured up involuntarily in a particular circumstance of a particular moment, Lost Memories employs the technique of Musique Concréte, which was invented by Pierre Schaeffer in 1948. I place a live-recorded sampling of an ambient sound of the street in the far off sonic layer moving behind the main sound mass, in order to create a sense of out-of-the-world of an alienated mind lost in the crowded street.

     

    ***Program note finished***

     

    *****************************

     

    Coda:

     

    Instead of editing, I rework on the program note as a sample for reference. Since a program note (text portion) is an inseparable part, rather than an auxiliary reference, of a musical artwork. As such, the program note needs to be written as artistic as it can since a composition is an art work.

    Of course, the above sample is NOT the only way to write a program note of a musical work. However, readers can still discover some valuable points worthy of considering:

     

    1. To introduce the musical idea in the first paragraph.(We inform the audience about the professional/psychoanalytical views of the selective memory and unconsciousness). Afterward, we connect the psychoanalytical idea with the musical artwork itself in the last sentence.

    2. To analyze part of the music in the second (the beginning) and the third (the climax) paragraphs.(We write the sound analysis, which is usually absent in many current program notes. Indeed audience are not interested in reading the score analysis and formal description from the program note.)

    3. To inform the audience/readers what special techniques that the composer has employed for this work.

    4. Lastly, the composer can learn thinking of and writing in “poetic metaphor”, which are very important creative skills not only for program note writing, but also for music composing.

     

     

    ***finished***

     

     

    David Leung (theorydavid)

    2014-04-07 (published)

     

    文字何價? : 電影 “偷書賊” 觀後感

    前言:

    踏入了2014年,還沒有寫過第一篇文章,皆因在朋友幫助我下,正設計我個人的新網站 (www.davidmusiccenter.com/)。我希望的網站不是純為做宣傳,買廣告,找生活。所以,我的網站也收錄了我這兩年多所寫的大部份文章和詩詞。將來,我也會在新網站陸續發表我已前出版過的有關音樂的學術論文。

    當然,我暫時不準備取銷這個個人網誌。各方好友,讀者,仍然可以透過這個網誌,看我的寫作。不過,我也會同時發表我的文章於私人的網站。因此,我也懇請各方有心之好友,抽空流覽這個新網站,予以支持。私人網站的成立是有需要的。或許有一天,google 會像 yahoo 一樣取銷免費的個人 blogger,如有自己的網站,我的文章就不至於沒有發表的渠道。因為,我是算自己是半個藝術家,作家和作曲家。

    既然開了新網站,是為了延續發表個人的寫作,因此,這新一年的第一篇文章,就以文字為題,自由發揮一番。

    電影 ‘偷書賊’,就啟發了我這篇文章。

    正文:

    如果有空閒時,我倒邀請各方好友,去看一套電影名叫 “The Book Thief”, 中譯 “偷書賊” 。當然,閱讀原著小說也可。據說小說也是真人真事改編。

    故事背景發生在二次大戰時,一位愛好閱讀,真正了解文字意義的無限與無價的德國九歲小女孩的事蹟。專欄作家高慧然也用了兩天的專欄去談她對這齣戲的感受。

    我早前去看了電影。在看之前剛好收到一位學生的電郵 ,也道出了她對這戲的欣賞,並說這電影很感人。

    電影的中心思想,是道出文字本質的價值。文字是甚麼? 為何能長存於人類歷史當中? 有人類存在,看來就有文字記錄。或許有些人認為,文字只是人與人溝通的一個實體記錄。小學課本常說是因為人在日常生活中,常常忘記了與別人談過的說話,又或對事物的善忘,為了解決這個問題而發明了文字,以此作為實體的記錄和憑據。

    可是,電影再次提醒我們,文字的存在和人類思想的永恆是息息相關,永不分離的。人與動物禽獸的最大分別,就是人類是有思想的,所以思想是無價,也因此,文字同樣是無價 。小女孩無錢買書,所以偷書,就是為了閱讀别人的文字。她深知,如果她懂得閱讀文字,就可以進入别人的內心世界,了解別人的感情和思想。這價值是無其他東西可比擬的。如果她懂寫作,她就可以通過自己的文字,與別人建立一個可以互相共享的思想和感情的世界。這是現代的溝通工具如 whatsapp,wechat,手電等不能取代。

    我且不論這電影是否戲劇化了小說的情節,但好的小說,又或電影,總留有精警的句字或對白,可堪回味。戲中或是原作中有一句對白精彩之極。可惜很多看過電影的朋友都錯過了。現願與各位分享。

    戲中的男主角是在大戰期間被 Nazi (納粹德國)追捕的 Jew (猶太人)。他躲在女孩子家中的地牢生活。可能是為了解悶,他每天都鼓勵女孩閱讀,表達和寫作。他每天在不見天日的地牢裡,鼓勵女孩給他描述當天的天氣怎樣。他不準許女孩只直述每天天氣的狀況,如今天天晴,或今天下雪等。他要求女孩用比喻去形容天氣,如今天陰霾,她就要說 “today is thunder dark.”,而且他更要女孩用說話式的文字去表達自己在這種天氣下的感覺和情緒。是! 用文字講出自己內心感情。

    他教女孩怎樣用文字表達的方式,和我教學生寫音樂文章都很相似。就是多用比喻去表達,用比較去作樂曲分析。他不止用口頭鼓勵女孩多閱讀,還送了一本空白頁的記事薄給女孩作禮物,鼓勵她要寫作,要用文字記下她自己的思想和感情。但好景不常,Nazi 的蓋世太保要搜屋捉人,為了確保女孩一家的安全,他一定要逃走。

    臨行前,女孩捨不得這個後來是她一生的摯友的離開,就死拉著他的手不放,但男主角(比她年紀大很多) 卻對她這樣說:

    “You never lose me. You can always see me in your words.”

    “妳並沒有失去我。妳總能在妳的文字中見到我。”

    他說這話的意思,不是單單鼓勵女孩寫下自己對摯友別離的思念。而是提醒女孩,每逢她用文字寫作,每論在寫甚麼的時候,就會想起他這個曾經教導過,鼓勵過自己的摯友。只要女孩繼續寫作,無論他日後是死是生,’他’ 是永遠地活著,永遠地陪伴著自己。

    男主角離開後,女孩就發現牆壁上寫著: Writing! (寫作!)

    所以,女孩就鼓起勇氣,用朋友送的空頁薄,開始用自己有限的文字寫起第一篇日記。

    過了不久,現時十四歲的女孩的雙親也在一次空襲中死去了。像很多戰時的孩子一樣,女孩也變成了孤兒。朋友死了,父母也死了,唯一陪伴寂寞的自己,就只有閱讀和寫作。

    這使我想起二十世紀的哲學家維根斯坦就文字的價值就曾這樣評論:

    “文字是思想的載體”

    “Word is the vessel of thoughts.”

    在這裡,我也就這句話添意如下:

    “文字不單是思想的載體,也是感情的容器,思念的補償”

    ” Word is not only the vessel of thoughts, but also the container of affection, the redemption of the missing.”

    女孩子長大後,成為了一位作家,與男主角的友誼,就像她的年歲一樣長久。

    突然,我發覺我喜歡文字和寫作,也與似同感。

    全文完

    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2014-03-06 (published)

    物輕情濃

    前言:

    送禮物的確不容易。雖是說物輕情意重,價錢不論。可是,要送得有意義,不論物品是有記念價值或是有實用價值,選擇哪種禮物才能平衡這兩種看法,令其更有心思,卻是頗費精神。因為,禮物如果是強調實用性的,就很難帶有深厚的記念價值。因為這類物品,大多是用完即棄,消失無影,這可真是物過情輕。事實是,隨着時間過去,接受者也很容易忘記誰是施贈者,贈送的人可能不希望結果是這樣。可是,另一方面,禮物如果是以記念性,和表達情意為主的,對接受者也帶來現實的問題不少。因為香港地寸金尺土,擺放禮物一段時間後,就慢慢的發現,家裡就沒有多餘空間可以再放更多。結果禮物又是被收藏在抽屜裡。不過,話得說回頭,這類物品大多是裝飾性,應該是擺放出來才有價值。如果要搬家的話,對於這類禮物,可真是難捨難留。再者,裝飾性的禮物,多數是很有獨特風格品味的。贈送者也不知接受的朋友喜歡與否。單就顏色而論,就考起人。最近,送了一份禮物給遠方朋友,也有很多感觸,原來真是兩難。

    正文:

    選擇禮物時,費的時間真不少。心想當然最好是同時又有記念性和又實用性的禮品,但價錢又要合乎中道。仍是那句老套話,物輕情濃嘛。所以,花了一段時間挑選,最後是選定了。但問題竟是顏色。總覺得顏色是很屬個人口味愛好的。可是,並不稱楚接受的朋友的愛好和風格,再者,知道朋友是懂繪畫,所畫的畫也不差,至少我覺得幾有個人品味和風格。真沒想過,要選對顏色,是對方喜歡的,竟然是個大大的難題。更不幸的是,這個禮物也很著重顏色和個人品味。如果選錯,接受者可能提不起勁用,這就可惜了。所以,匆匆打了短訊詢問,得到的答案是可看看配搭哩,無所謂的。這可真惨了。答了等於無答。猶豫了好幾個星期,時間也不能再等,就選了自己也大多會後悔的禮品送過去。幾天後,對方收到了,禮貌的道謝。可是直覺告訴自己,顏色是選錯了。純色是錯誤的選擇。選純色就只因記得以往對方曾說過口味是不喜歡複雜,只喜歡簡單。
    這時,心想既是自我推許為文人雅仕,隨後便補了古近體詩一首,算是自嘲,也是添意。

    此物無言卻有情

    盼於寒夜送溫馨

    嫣紅雖未盡君意

    還望展眉露笑聲

    詩就寫完了,結果是聽到笑聲與否,都不再重要。贈送禮物,當然喜歡接受者歡顏,不喜歡,又能怎樣。說起討人一笑,也記起很多年前有個朋友,希望跟女朋友見面時,送上一份純心意,不含任何金錢價值的禮物予對方。一方面希望對方意會其濃情厚意,另一方面,也算是給對方一個意外驚喜。原來他想親自為其朋友最喜歡的一首英文歌填上中文歌詞,帶朋友到一個幽靜的地方,然後唱給對方聽,兼向對方表白。當時還未流行 Karaoke,所以做這些安排就頗費心思。首先,當然就是填詞工作。然後就練歌,背歌詞,錄音樂等。問題來了,我朋友是不懂音律,又無文采,怎樣填上能向對方表白之心意之詞呢?

    結果,當然求救於當軍師的我。

    於是,我們就在電話裡一起 (其實全部由本人包辦) 為 Reality 這首當時很流行的英文歌填上了歌詞。

    偶遇 (調寄 Reality)


    是我踫着妳
    是我偶遇妳
    相識的一刻是無拘

    樂意接受妳
    樂意接近妳
    願這快樂此世盡記取

    風來不再感困憂
    人生總不免多唏噓
    能共妳一起進退
    尋找每個妙趣
    從今去譜寫新詩句

    結果如何? 想不到就是這數十年後的翻版。朋友的女友的反應就是,Ha Ha 兩聲…. 幾得意啊! 禮貌的回應一句,就不再提了。禮物的記念價值果真不及實用價值了。朋友真的後悔,就說 “早知買隻戒指送俾佢啦。”

    這事以後,朋友和他的女友拍了一段時間的拖,最後還是分了手。現在,我相信各人都是名花有主,繼續生活。

    所以,對人生的際遇,我還是這句:

    豈能盡隨人意,但求無愧我心


    全文完

    David Leung (theorydavid)
    2013-12-13 (published)

    無題三首: 唐近體詩的新寫作

    前言:

    知道誰是蘇曼殊嗎? 他是近代清未民初時文藝全才的出家詩人,畫家,翻譯家。他精通印度文,日文,英文和中文。我說他也是個多情僧人也不為過。因他的詩集中有 “無題” 八首,都是以愛情為題材的。這正合吾之興緻所在。對我來說,詩不是古人所說言志,剛相反,是言情,是談愛。蘇曼殊情詩全是以唐近體詩寫成,遣詞造句的平仄格律要嚴格執行。吾讀過其詩,感覺有李商隱詩之韻味。蓋商隱之詩,也是以描寫浪漫情懷見稱。無獨有偶,曼殊之詩也喜以 “無題”為題。

    近月我寫的多是新詩,以語體文寫成,近似優雅的散文風格。可是,知我者,皆了解吾之興趣在於古典文學的韻文,尤喜愛唐近體詩之七絕和宋詞之小令和中調。我以前也為寫過很多這種風格的古詩詞。由於認識之友遠赴國外深造,遂有感而發,即興寫了三首 “無題” 詩以適懷。這三首詩,或多或少,也受杜牧和蘇曼殊詩之影響。


    正文:


    好一句曼殊之詩,此句有云: “詩成百絕情難寫

    我說這 “百絕” 確是一絕。他的 “百絕”是一百首七言絕詩,我說的 “一絕” 是指其前無古 “情”,後無來 “愛” 的絕頂好詩。

    我想我就沒有能力寫一百首七言絕詩。但寫十首,八首就或可勉力試之。

    近月省悟,吾以往之七絕情詩,不是純為表達詩人主觀的情感世界,總是帶有多有少評論情愛的意味,是哲理性的。例如以下這一首情詩,名為 “悔愛”,是寫於十多年前。讀者或可窺悟其中哲理。可說是屬那哲理性的愛情詩。

       

     悔愛

     飄幌寒缸對影深

     清宵羅秣步秋塵

     月娥忽悟桃源恨

     悔愛靈丹不愛人

    詩中所說的 “桃源” 是典故,是指陶潛著名的 “桃花源記”。其中所記,漁夫沒有珍惜留在那個世外桃源的地方。住了數日就返回那戰亂的現實世界。後來,漁夫想找回原路,到桃花源去。可是他也忘了路,悔恨也遲。我是以此典故,暗喻嫦娥偷藥奔月,捨離愛人,換來孤獨一生的悔恨。前兩句就明顯描述詩中孤單的女子,切夜難眠而獨對深深庭園之情景。這是常用的舊式寫作手法。以景溶情,以情溶景。當然,詩中的兩個典故,就不須拘泥於時間顛倒了,因為只為取其意而矣。

     

    比較之下,我以下有感而寫的 “無題”三首,其中的第二首,就明顯是首情詩。除了刻意用一些疊字修辭來舖排每句句子,製造張力,並使之啷啷上口,其意境在就於表達詩人那一剎那的感情,是散文式的寫法,特意除去了以往那以景入情,以情入景的造意手法。也不用典故,只忠於那一抹的情感真意。哪種寫法較好,就不須拘泥執著。只要是情真意濃,我相信這就是好詩。

     

    至於其餘兩詩,一首是臨摹杜牧之詩,主題是稱讚青春女子的漂亮,就是全英國也找不到她還美的。另一首是暗諷女子因貪睡而逃學,浪費了大好時光。

    杜牧原詩其中的一句真是深得我心。

     

    春風十里楊州里

    捲上珠簾總不如

    我就變化了這兩句詩,而開始了我這首 “無題” 詩。

     

     

     無題一

     娉娉裊裊二十餘

     瑩眸雪肌秀如絲

     春風萬里英倫地

     碧眼黃絲總不如

     

     

     無題二

     

     

     歎緣相遇未逢時

     一片相思一闕詞

     還是有情還有夢
     半含心事半恨遲

     無題三

     

     夢酣不覺日高升

     暖枕沉眠夜靜寧

     不屑人間科舉事

     香羅綺帳伴淽澄

     

    梁大偉書於二零一三年正冬

    後記:
    港人常以為男子應日理萬機,學好管理,那能進軍商業金融行業為找大錢的,才是真正事業。男子做企業家,商家才是成功人仕。余深受其害,磋砣歲月數十載,換來一事無成,滿身傷痕,一心懊悔。盼餘生可以就此大徹大悟,甘於當個無名詩人,作家和作曲家好了。

    遂記之………………….


    David Leung (theorydavid )
    2013-12-06 published

     

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